The Challenge of Keeping Up with Data

Intel® Optane™ persistent memory represents a groundbreaking technology innovation. Delivered with the next-generation 2nd Generation Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors, this workload optimized technology will help businesses extract more actionable insights from data – from cloud and databases, to in-memory analytics, and content delivery networks.

Every Day, the Amount of Data Created Across the World Is Exploding to New Levels
Every day, the amount of data created across the world is exploding to new levels. Businesses thrive on this data to make critical decisions, gain new insights, and differentiate services. The demand for memory capacity is growing at an insatiable rate and there is a need to keep larger amounts of data closer to the CPU. The technology that dominates traditional main memory, DRAM, is fast to access, but small, expensive, and volatile. Storage is large, cheap, persistent, but is slow to access. There is a huge latency and bandwidth penalty as you jump from RAM based memory and disk based storage. The ever increasing amount of data and the need to access more of it quickly have further magnified the gap. Intel's breakthrough product, Intel® Optane™ persistent memory, is disrupting the traditional memory-storage hierarchy by creating a new tier to fill the memory-storage gap providing greater overall performance, efficiency, and affordability.

Internet Technology Completes the Hierarchy

Introducing Intel® Optane™ Persistent Memory
The new Intel® Optane™ persistent memory introduces a new category that sits between memory and storage and will deliver the best of both worlds through the convergence of memory and storage product traits. Intel® Optane™ persistent memory is available in capacities of 128 GiB, 256 GiB, and 512 GiB and is a much larger alternative to DRAM which currently caps at 128 GiB. With this new flexible tier of products, designers and developers will have access to large capacity and affordable memory that is both flexible (volatile or non-volatile) and serves as a high-performance storage tier. They will also have the option of application managed memory which is vital to optimize system performance. The low, consistent latency, combined with high bandwidth, Quality of Service (QoS) and endurance of this unique Intel® technology will mean more capacity and more virtual machines (VMs) for cloud and virtualized users, much higher capacity for in-memory databases without prohibitive price tags, super-fast storage, and larger memory pools. Ultimately, Intel can deliver higher system performance with larger memory that is 3X the performance of NVMe*-SSD, with much higher endurance than NAND SSDs for write-intensive workloads.

The persistent memory modules are DDR4 socket comp- atible and can co-exist with conventional DDR4 DRAM DIMMs on the same platform. The module fits into standard DDR4 DIMM slots on 2nd Generation Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors. Designed with and optimized for the 2nd Generation Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors, a user can have up to one Intel® Optane™ persistent memory per channel and up to six on a single-socket providing up to 3 TiB of Intel® Optane™ persistent memory which means an 8 socket system could access up to 24 TiB of system memory. The module is compatible with 2nd Generation Intel® Xeon® Gold and Platinum processor SKUs.

Intel® Optane™ persistent memory is big, affordable, and persistent which makes extracting more value from larger data sets than previously possible. This new technology can solve issues for customers and launch a revolution in the data center. Finally an affordable alternative to expensive DRAM, that can deliver HUGE capacity and can accommodate demanding workloads and emerging applications like in-memory databases (IMDB). When deployed, Intel® Optane™ persistent memory can help improve TCO via not just memory savings, but broadly via reduced SW licensing costs, node reduction, power efficiencies, and other operational efficiencies.

Not only can Intel® Optane™ persistent memory bring cost savings, it can improve infrastructure consolidation making your servers do more. Intel® Optane™ persistent memory can spur major infrastructure consolidation. The increase in memory size from Intel® Optane™ media provide the opportunity to consolidate workloads that have been spread across several nodes, leaving CPUs underutilized, to concentrating and consolidating workloads on fewer nodes, ultimately saving on the deployments necessary and maximizing CPU utilization. Each Node does more, and the CPU can do more.

Intel® Optane™ persistent memory brings an entirely new memory tier that has new properties of performance and persistence, and architects and developers are using it as a springboard for innovation taking advantage of new usages around restart and replication, groundbreaking performances from breaking system bottlenecks that used to severely constrain workloads, and making use of what could be considered the world's tiniest, but fastest storage device sitting on a memory bus.

Operational Modes
The Intel® Optane™ persistent memory has two operating modes: Memory Mode and App Direct Mode. With distinct operating modes, customers have the flexibility to take advantage of Intel® Optane™ persistent memory benefits across multiple workloads.

Memory Mode – Memory Mode is great for large memory capacity and does not require application changes which makes Intel® Optane™ persistent memory easy to adopt. In Memory Mode, the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory extends the amount of available volatile memory visible to the Operating System. DRAM is used as Cache for the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory. The CPU memory controller uses the DRAM as cache and the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory as addressable main memory. Virtualization can benefit from Intel® Optane™ persistent memory in Memory Mode because there is larger memory capacity which provides more VMs and more memory per VM at a lower cost compared to DRAM. Workloads that are I/O bound can also benefit from using Memory Mode as the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory provides larger memory capacity which supports larger databases and at a lower cost compared to DRAM. With increased capacity there is greater VM, container, and application density which increases the utilization of the 2nd Generation Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors. The data in the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory when used in Memory Mode is volatile as it is handled with a single encryption key that upon power down is discarded making the data inaccessible.

App Direct Mode – In App Direct Mode, software and applications have the ability to talk directly to the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory, which reduces complexity in the stack. There is the option of having App Direct Mode use legacy storage APIs. This allows it to act like an SSD and can boot an OS. The operating system sees Intel® Optane™ persistent memory and DRAM as two separate pools of memory. It is persistent like storage, byte addressable like memory, cache coherent which extends the usage of persistent memory outside the local node, and consistent low latency supporting larger datasets. The power of persistent memory adds business resilience to systems with faster restart times because data is retained even during power cycles. Memory bound workloads benefit from Intel® Optane™ persistent memory with its large capacity and higher endurance and greater bandwidth compared to NAND SSDs.

Dual Mode – A sub-set of App Direct, can be provisioned so that some of the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory is in Memory Mode and the remaining is in App Direct Mode. In Dual Mode, applications can take advantage of high performance storage without the latency of moving data to and from the I/O bus.

Intel® Optane™ persistent memory has 256-AES hardware encryption so you can rest easy knowing your data is more secure. While in Memory Mode the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory encryption key is removed when powered down and is regenerated at each boot. This means data is no longer accessible. In App Direct Mode data is encrypted using a key on the module. Intel® Optane™ persistent memory is locked at power loss and a passphrase is needed to unlock and access the data. The encryption key is stored in a security metadata region on the module and is only accessible by the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory controller. If repurposing or discarding the module, a secure cryptographic erase and DIMM over-write is utilized to keep data from being accessed.

Extract More Value from Larger Data Sets Than Previously Possible
With the advent of larger persistent memory capacities, larger datasets can exist closer to the CPU for faster processing which mean greater insights. Higher capacities of Intel® persistent memory create a more affordable solution which is accelerating this industry-wide trend towards IMDB. Delivered on the 2nd Generation Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors, large memory-bound workloads will have significant performance increase for rapid data processing.

With Intel® persistent memory, customers will have large capacity memory to choose from which means that they can support bigger datasets for analysis. An additional benefit here is that the CPU can read/write cache lines to Intel® persistent memory, which means overhead of constructing the data into 4 KB blocks to be written to disk is eliminated. Intel® persistent memory will offer many of these benefits through App Direct mode with higher reliability as Intel® Optane™ persistent memory can handle more petabytes written than NAND SSDs. Customers can also benefit from the module's native persistence which provides quicker recovery and less downtime compared to DRAM all at a much lower cost.

Many mission critical databases and enterprise apps store large amounts of data in working memory. If a server goes down, either planned or not, it can take hours to re-load the memory array, increasing the downtime. Application downtime can be measured in thousands of dollars per minute. Since Intel® Optane™ persistent memory retains data during power cycles, these types of applications can be returned to service orders of magnitude faster. This means enterprises, cloud, and communication service providers can consistently meet their SLAs and avoid expensive system redundancy costs. An example is SAP HANA* which can realize a 13x faster restart time at a 39% cost savings.1 2 3 4 5

Scale Delivery of More Services to More Customers at Compelling Performance
Virtual machines are requiring bigger amounts of data. Having larger memory capacity near the CPU means that customers can support more virtual machines and more memory per virtual machine all at a cost lower than typical DRAM. Before Intel® Optane™ persistent memory, the memory system was constrained and the CPU was underutilized. Consequently, this severely limits performance. Now Intel® Optane™ persistent memory enables more virtual machines (VM), or larger VMs at a lower HW cost per VM. With Microsoft Windows Server* 2019/Hyper-V, customers can realize 33% more system memory, 36% more VMs per node all at a 30% lower hardware cost.1 2 6 7

Drive Application Innovation and Explore New Data-intensive Use Case with This Best-in-Class Product
With Intel® Optane™ persistent memory introducing a new tier of memory, with its compelling new characteristics, and the ability to have direct load load/store access to it, developers are able to drive new innovation and capabilities.

Rapid adoption is easier and customers are able to take full advantage of the Intel® Optane™ persistent memory capabilities with a growing global ecosystem of ISVs, OSVs, virtualization providers, database and enterprise application vendors, data analytics vendors, open source solutions providers, Cloud Service Providers, and HW OEMs, Standards bodies such as the Storage Network Industry Association (SNIA), ACPI, UEFI, and DMTF.

More Capacity, Go Faster, Save More for SAP HANA*1 2 3 4 5
Pricing Guidance as of March 1, 2019. Intel does not guarantee any costs or cost reduction.
You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in your purchase decision.

Programming Model
The software interface for using Intel® Optane™ persistent memory was designed in collaboration with dozens of companies to create a unified programming model for persistent memory. The Storage Network Industry Association (SNIA) formed a technical workgroup which has published a specification of the model. This software interface is independent of any specific persistent memory technology and can be used with Intel® Optane™ persistent memory or any other persistent memory technology.

The model exposes three main capabilities:

  • The management path allows system administrators to configure persistent memory products and check their health.
  • The storage path supports the traditional storage APIs where existing applications and file systems need no change; they simply see the persistent memory as very fast storage.
  • The memory-mapped path exposes persistent memory through a persistent memory-aware file system so that applications have direct load/store access to the persistent memory. This direct access does not use the page cache like traditional file systems and has been named DAX by the operating system vendors.

When an independent software vendor (ISV) decides to fully leverage what persistent memory can do, converting the application to memory map persistent memory and place data structures in it can be a significant change. Keeping track of persistent memory allocations and making changes to data structures as transactions (to keep them consistent in the face of power failure) is complex programming that hasn't been required for volatile memory and is done differently for block-based storage.

The Persistent Memory Development Kit (PMDK – provides libraries meant to make persistent memory programming easier. Software developers only pull in the features they need, keeping their programs lean and fast on persistent memory.

These libraries are fully validated and performance-tuned by Intel. They are open source and product neutral, working well on a variety of persistent memory products. The PMDK contains a collection of open source libraries which build on the SNIA programming model. The PMDK is fully documented and includes code samples, tutorials, and blogs. Language support for the libraries exists in C and C++, with support for Java, Python*, and other languages in progress.

Turn Your Data from a Burden to an Asset
Intel® Optane™ persistent memory represents a groundbreaking technology innovation. Delivered with the next-generation Intel® Xeon® Scalable processor, this technology will transform critical data workloads—from cloud and databases, to in-memory analytics, and content delivery networks.

Windows Server* 2019/Hyper-V - Multi-Tenant Virtualization
Workload – Windows Server* 2019/Hyper-V with OLTP Cloud Benchmark1 2 6 7
Pricing guidance as of March 1, 2019. Intel does not guarantee any costs or cost reduction.
You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in your purchase decision.

Intel® Optane™ Persistent Memory Data Sheet


Intel® Optane™ Persistent Memory
Persistent Memory Module (PMM)


128 GiB

256 GiB

512 GiB


126.4 GiB8

252.4 GiB8

502.5 GiB8



























Intel® Optane™ technology

AFR ≤ 0.44

363 PBW

300 PBW

91 PBW

91 PBW

75 PBW
BANDWIDTH 100% READ 15W 256B 6.8 GB/s

6.8 GB/s

5.3 GB/s
BANDWIDTH 100% WRITES 15W 256B 1.85 GB/s

2.3 GB/s

1.89 GB/s
BANDWIDTH 100% READ 15W 64B 1.7 GB/s 1.75 GB/s 1.4 GB/s
BANDWIDTH 100% WRITES 15W 64B 0.45 GB/s 0.58 GB/s 0.47 GB/s
DDR FREQUENCY 2666, 2400, 2133, 1866 MT/s




TEMPERATURE (TJMAX) ≤ 84 oC (85 oC shutdown, 83 oC default) media temperature
TEMPERATURE (TAMBIENT) 54 oC @ 2.4m/s for 10W
TEMPERATURE (TAMBIENT) 49 oC @ 2.4m/s for 12W
TEMPERATURE (TAMBIENT) 44 oC @ 2.7m/s for 15W

40 oC @ 3.7m/s for 18W

NOTES: ¹GiB = 230; GB = 10⁹

Intel® Optane™ Persistent Memory

準備好與 Intel 討論,協助您加速資料中心的現代化旅程了嗎?



效能結果依據截至 2019 年 1 月 30 日的測試,可能無法反映所有公開提供的安全性更新。沒有產品或元件能提供絕對的安全性。


效能因使用情形、配置和其他因素而異。請造訪 進一步瞭解。


1.3TB 資料組的列式儲存完整重新載入 DRAM 是 20 分鐘。先前整套系統重新啟動是 32 分鐘,使用 DC PMEM 是 13.5 分鐘(12 分鐘給作業系統 + 1.5 分鐘)。


重新啟動的速度加快 13 倍:基準配置(僅 DRAM):系統:Lightning Ridge (4s);CPU:Intel® Xeon® 8280M;每一節點的 CPU:4 插槽 @ 28 核心 / 插槽;記憶體:6 TB (48 x 128 GB 
DDR4 @ 2666 MT/s;網路:10 GbE Intel X520NIC;儲存裝置:60x Intel® SSD Data Center (Intel® SSD DC) S4600 SATA 480 GB TB;BIOS:WW48'18;OS 或 VM 版本:SUSE 15;WL 版本:Intel IT 工作負載;SAP HANA* 資料庫大小:3TB;安全性風險緩解:採用變異 1、2、3;預測成本日期:2019 年 3 月 1 日。
Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體和 DRAM 配置:系統:Lightning Ridge (4s);CPU:Intel® Xeon® 8280L;每一節點 CPU:4 插槽 @ 28 核心 / 插槽;記憶體:9TB (248 x 256 GB Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體,24 x 128 GB DDR4 @ 2666 MT/s;網路:10 GbE Intel X520NIC;儲存裝置:90x Intel® SSD Data Center (Intel® SSD DC) S4600 SATA 480 GB TB;BIOS:WW48'18;OS 或 VM 版本:
SUSE 15;WL 版本:Intel IT 工作負載;SAP HANA* 資料庫大小:3TB;安全性風險緩解:採用變異 1、2、3;預測成本日期:2019 年 3 月 1 日。


基準配置(僅 DRAM):系統數量:5;每一插槽的記憶體子系統:DRAM – 1536 GB (12x128 GB);CPU SKU|每一系統數量:8280M(CLX,Plat,28 核心)|4;儲存裝置說明|總
儲存成本:HDD/SDD 數量|36,000 美元;軟體授權說明|每一系統成本:軟體成本(每一核心或每一系統)|0 美元;相關價值指標:15.00;CPU 成本:4x8280M(CLX,Plat,28 核心):
52,048 美元;記憶體子系統:總容量(僅 DRAM):6144 GB(1536 GB/插槽):91,834 美元;儲存裝置:HDD/SDD 數量:36,000 美元;RBOM:機殼;PSU;開機磁碟等:7,603 美元;軟體成本:0 美元;
總系統成本:187,485 美元;總成本:5 個系統 x 187,485 美元:937,424 美元;成本/TB:62,494.95 美元。
Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體和 DRAM 配置:系統數量:5;每一插槽的記憶體子系統:2304 GB(6x256 GB DCPMM + 6x128 GB DRAM,2-2-2 App Direct 模式;CPU SKU|每一系統的數量 
系統數量:8280L(CLX,Plat,28 核心)|4;儲存裝置說明|總儲存成本:HDD/SDD 數量|54,000 美元;軟體授權說明|每一系統成本:軟體成本(每一核心或每一系統)|0 美元;相關
價值指標:30.00;CPU 成本:2x8280L(CLX,Plat,28 核心):71,624 美元;記憶體子系統:總容量(Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體 + DRAM):9216 GB(2304 GB/插槽):96,917 美元; 
儲存裝置:HDD/SDD 數量:54,000 美元;RBOM:機殼;PSU;開機磁碟等:7,603 美元;軟體成本:0 美元;總系統成本:230,144 美元;5 個系統 x 230,144 美元:1,150,720 美元;成本/TB:38,357.32 美元。


基準配置(僅 DRAM):節點:1;插槽:2;CPU:Cascade Lake B08272L;核心/插槽,執行緒/插槽:26,52;超執行緒:開啟;渦輪加速:開啟;BKC 版本:WW42’18;Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體 FW 版本:5253;系統 DDR 記憶體配置:插槽/容量/執行速度;24 插槽/32 GB/2666 MT/s;總記憶體/節點(DDR,Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體)768 GB,0;儲存裝置 –
開機:1x Samsung PM963 M.2 960 GB;儲存應用磁碟:7 x Samsung PM963 M.2 960 GB,4x Intel® SSD S4600 (1.92 TB);網路:Intel X520SR2 (10 Gb);PCH LBG QS/PRQ-T-B2;
作業系統:Windows Server 2019 RS5-17763;工作負載與版本:OLTP 雲端效能標竿。
Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體和 DRAM 配置:節點:1;插槽:2;CPU:Cascade Lake B08272L;核心/插槽,執行緒/插槽:26,52;超執行緒:開啟;渦輪加速:開啟;BKC 版本:WW42'18;
Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體 FW 版本:5253;系統 DDR 記憶體配置:插槽/容量/執行速度;12 插槽/16 GB/2666 MT/s;系統 Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體配置:
插槽/容量/執行速度:8 插槽/128 GB/2666 MT/s;總記憶體/節點(DDR,Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體)192 GB,1 TB;儲存裝置 – 開機:1x Samsung PM963 M.2 960 GB;儲存應用磁碟:7 x Samsung PM963 M.2 960 GB,4x Intel® SSD S4600 (1.92 TB);網路:Intel X520SR2 (10 Gb);PCH LBG QS/PRQ-T-B2;作業系統:Windows Server 2019 RS5-17763;
工作負載與版本:OLTP 雲端效能標竿。每一 VM 執行 4 vCPU,每一 VM 32 GB 記憶體。


基準配置(僅 DRAM):系統數量:1;每一插槽的記憶體子系統:DRAM – 284 GB (12x32 GB);CPU SKU|每一系統數量:3276(CLX,Plat,28 核心)|2;儲存裝置說明|總
儲存成本:HDD/SDD 數量|7,200 美元;軟體授權說明|每一系統成本:軟體成本(每一核心或每一系統)|0 美元;相關價值指標:22.00;CPU 成本:2x8276(CLX,Plat,28 核心):
17,348 美元;記憶體子系統:總容量(僅 DRAM):768 GB(384 GB/插槽):8,993 美元;儲存裝置:HDD/SDD 數量:7,200 美元;RBOM:機殼;PSU;開機磁碟等:1,300 美元;軟體成本:0 美元;
總系統成本:34,931 美元。
Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體和 DRAM 配置:系統數量:1;每一插槽的記憶體子系統:2 GB(4x128 GB DCPMM + 6x16 GB DRAM,2-2-1,記憶體模式;CPU SKU|每一系統數量:
3276(CLX,Plat,28 核心)|2;儲存裝置說明|總儲存成本:HDD/SDD 數量|7,200 美元;軟體授權說明|每一系統成本:軟體成本(每一核心或每一系統)|0 美元;相關價值
指標:22.00;CPU 成本:2x8276(CLX,Plat,28 核心):17,348 美元;記憶體子系統:總容量(Intel® Optane™ 持續性記憶體 + DRAM):1024 GB(512 GB/插槽):7,306 美元;儲存裝置:
HDD/SDD 數量:7,200 美元;RBOM:機殼;PSU;開機磁碟等:1,300 美元;軟體成本:0 美元;總系統成本:33,244 美元。